OREN YIFTACHEL: LECTURES
THE 'DARK-SIDE' OF PLANNING: EXPLORING SOCIAL AND SPATIAL CONTROL The lecture argues that planning historians and theoreticians have consistently neglected to account for a 'dark side' in urban and regional planning: its use to advance regressive goals of oppression and control, instead of social reform and public utility. An analytical framework is developed in which planning policy is shown as a contested ground between the poles of control and reform, oppression and emancipation. The implication for planning theory and practice are then illustrated.
UNDERSTANDING HOMELAND NATIONALISM: BETWEEN ETHNICITY AND CITIZENSHIP The lecture analyses the emergence and manifestations of homeland ethnonationalism as one of the main 'engines' of recent world history. It discusses its relations with the principles of self-determination, ethnic territoriality and state policies. It then assesses critically the impact of homeland nationalism, especially as expressed in states spatial and planning policies, on minorities and diasporas. The lecture illustrates in more detail several notable cases of ethnonational movements, showing that homeland nationalism can lead to the emergence of several regime-types, ranging from civil democracy to exclusionary 'ethnocracy'.
PALESTINIAN-ARABS IN ISRAEL: 'FRACTURED REGIONALISM', DEPRIVATION AND RESISTANCE This lecture analyses the condition of the Palestinian-Arab minority vis-a-vis the Israeli 'ethnocracy' and its dominant Jewish majority since 1948. The lecture reviews the territorial, socioeconomic and power dimensions of Arab-Jewish relations, and the impact of Israeli policies in these three areas. Arab resistance to Israel's policies and to their deprivation within Israel is analysed, highlighting its evolution, nature, location and impact. Finally, the impact of the above is highlighted on the emergence of 'fractured' regionalism among Palestinian-Arabs in Israel (slides available)
MIZRAHIM IN ISRAEL'S 'DEVELOPMENT TOWNS': THE CONSEQUENCES OF PLANNING CONTROL The lecture outlines the history, development and current situation of Israel's peripheral development towns. Their establishment is analysed in terms of the attempts by the state and its founding elites to simultaneously incorporate and control minority immigrant groups (Mizrahi, Sepharadi Jews) within Israel's nation-building and state-building projects. The isolation and ethnic homogeneity of the development towns, however, has created a variety of social, political and cultural consequences, some of which are now threatening the cohesion of Israel's on-going nation-building efforts.
'ETHNOCRACY': THE POLITICS OF JUDAISING ISRAEL/PALESTINE The lecture analyses for the political-geography of the Zionist-Palestinian conflict. It treats the entire Israel/Palestine territory as the unit of analysis, and reviews the process of Judaisation, as expressed through land policy, immigration, militarisation and capital flow, as a constitutive to the emergence of Jewish and Palestinian societies. On this basis it analyses political developments, mass mobilisation and the sharpening of group relations on both ethno-national and ethno-class levels.
CHALLENGING ETHNOCRACY: PROTEST AND IDENTITY AMONG ISRAELI PERIPHERIES The lecture first outlines the regime which has emerged in Israel/Palestine since 1948 -- a Jewish 'ethnocracy'. It then reviews and analyses the emergence of challenges to this regime, particularly from Palestinian and Jewish-Mizrahi (Eastern) popular protest movements. It discusses the similarities and differences between the Palestinian-Arab and Mizrahi challenges, and the ability of the dominant Ashkenazi ethno-class to maintain its privileged position.
ETHNIC RELATIONS IN ISRAEL/PALESTINE: DEMOCRACY OR 'ETHNOCRACY'? The lecture critically examines the regime in Israel/Palestine through the prism of ethnic political-geography. It examines the distribution of rights, resources, space and power among the various ethno-classes and their evolution over time. It then compares and contrasts these group relations with the principles of democracy and demonstrates the emergence of an ethnocratic regime. The lecture concludes with sketching an agenda for increasing the democratisation of Israel/Palestine.
PALESTINIAN AND JEWISH NATIONAL MOVEMENTS: TOWARDS RECONCILIATION? The lecture analyses the evolution of Jewish and Palestinian nationalism, both in Palestine/Israel and in the respective diasporas. It examines the extent to which the development of each movement was affected by the existence of the other, and the prospects of historical reconciliation vis-a-vis a gradual process of territorial compromise. The lecture focuses on the economic, spatial and political aspects of likely Jewish-Palestinian relations, and discusses the ramifications of continuing asymmetry between the two national communities. It finally discusses the bi-national solution to the conflict which has recently resurfaced as a potential political future in the joint homeland.
COLLECTIVE IDENTITIES IN ISRAEL/PALESTINE: 'FRACTURED REGIONALISM' The lecture explores the emergence of collective identities among Israeli citizens. It focuses on the process of frontier settlement and the imposition of spatial and occupational segregation which have created 'fractured regions' within the country. This geography and political economy of ethnic control has enabled Israeli elites to maintain their dominance, despite constant demographic and territorial changes, and despite the impact of globalisation, which could have undermined their position.
LAND REGIME IN ISRAEL/PALESTINE: THE CORE OF AN ETHNOCRATIC SYSTEM The lecture analyses the structure and features of the Israeli land system which presides over most of Israel/Palestine. It explores the historical and political foundations of the Israeli ethnocratic regime in internationally comparative perspective, and illustrates the functioning of the state's land system as a core of such a regime. The lecture analyses the legal, geographical, planning and economic consequences of this system on Israel/Palestine in general, and on regional and local ethnic relations in particular.